"GENEVA ACCORD" - ALTERNATIVE VERSION
As this is being posted, the so-called "Geneva Accords," an offshoot and continuation of the cursed Olso, Hebron and Wye Accords, are being signed in Switzerland. According to latest IDF figures: From 29 September 2000 through 29 November 2003: 898 killed, 6,003 injured, 19,636 attacks.
Presently I am proud to post "Geneva Accord: An Alternative Version-Model for a Permanent Israel-Arab Agreement", by Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons. It is slightly longer than regular postings, but it is well worth the reading. The document includes detailed footnotes.
"GENEVA ACCORD" Alternative Version:
Model for a Permanent Israel-Arab Agreement
by Rabbi Dr. Chaim Simons
Mandatory Palestine will be divided into two states to be called Palestine and Israel.
Palestine will be given 77% of the land area and will be situated east of the Jordan River. i.e. the area of the country today known as Jordan.
Israel will be given the remaining 23% and will be situated west of the Jordan River. i.e. the area at present under Israeli law and order, together with the whole of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza strip.
Arabs at present living in the designated Israel will, on signing a declaration recognizing Israel as a Jewish state, be allowed to remain. Otherwise they will move to Palestine.
Likewise Jews living in the designated Palestine will, on signing a declaration recognizing Palestine as an Arab state, be allowed to remain. Otherwise they will move to Israel.
Part 1 - Background
The Mandate for Palestine
In April 1920, the San Remo Conference decided to assign the Palestine Mandate under the League of Nations to Britain.The area known as Palestine in this Mandate document extended from the Mediterranean to the eastern border of what is today known as Jordan. Article 6 of this document stated that an aim of the Mandate was to "encourage, in co-operation with the Jewish agency,... close settlement by Jews on the landArticle 25 allowed the Mandatory Power, with the consent of the League of Nations, "to postpone or withhold application" of certain articles of this Mandate in the area known as Transjordan In March 1946, Britain acting unilaterally and contrary to Article 5 of the Mandate, detached the area of Transjordan from the Mandate and set up "a sovereign independent State" named Transjordan On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution dividing up Palestine west of the Jordan River into two independent states, a Jewish one and an Arab oneWest Bank") was occupied and annexed by Jordan, and Egypt captured the area known as the Gaza Strip. The only countries in the world to recognise Jordan's annexation were Britain and PakistanThe Six Day War.
In June 1967, Egypt, Jordan and Syria made an unprovoked attack on Israel. As a result of this attack, the Six Day War broke out. During the course of this war, Israel succeeded in acquiring Judea and Samaria, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights.
In the following years, leading international lawyers discussed Israel's international rights to Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip, and they concluded that Israel has a better title to these areas than any other country in the world. These legal authorities included, Professor Julius Stone Since the Six Day War, Israel has built settlements in these areas (including east Jerusalem) and towards the end of 2003, there were about 400,000 Jews living there The late Eugene Rostow, who was Professor of Law at Yale University and U.S. Assistant Under-Secretary of State, wrote, "Since the Palestine Mandate conferred the right to settle in the West Bank on the Jews, that right has not been extinguished, and, under Article 80 of the [United Nations] Charter, cannot be extinguished unilaterally.
Jews from Arab Countries
Jews have lived in Arab countries for thousands of years. They were often persecuted and such persecution greatly intensified from the end of 1947. Three quarters of a million Jews fled to Israel, either having their property and assets confiscated or having to abandon themTransfer of population has been successfully put into practice in the 20th century in different parts of the world. Here are some of examples of such transfers:At about the same period there was an exchange of population between Greece and Bulgaria.
After Pakistan split from India in August 1947, 8 million Hindus went from Pakistan to India and 6 millions Muslims in the reverse direction. This was an operation which had broad international support.
A discussion of the advantages and moral aspects of transfer of population is given in Part 3 of this paper.
A Historical Survey on Transfer of Arabs from Eretz Israel
It is a common misconception that the idea of transfer of Arabs from Eretz Israel originated with Rabbi Meir Kahane. In fact this idea stems from Theodor Herzl himself. In his private diary entry in June 1895, he wrote regarding the indigenous non-Jews in the Jewish State, "We shall try and spirit the penniless population across the border by procuring employment for it in the transit countries whilst denying it any employment in our own country. Herzl was not the only Zionist leader to make such proposals. David Ben-Gurion repeatedly made such proposals in his private diary. Chaim Weizmann, the liberal, told the British Colonial Secretary that "the Jews ... will help in getting Arabs out of Galilee.
The Six Day War with its consequent large increase of Arabs under Israel's jurisdiction, spurred on further transfer proposals. In a Cabinet meeting held a week after the war, Abba Eban and Pinchas Sapir called for the transfer of the Arab refugees residing in Judea, Samaria and the Gaza strip to the neigbouring Arab countries Such proposals were not limited to Jews. It was President Franklin Roosevelt who stated that "Palestine should be for the Jews and no Arabs should be in itWestern Palestine should be handed over completely to the Jews, clear of Arab population.... In 1939, Mojli Amin,, a member of the Arab Defense Committee for Palestine, put forward a proposal to transfer the Arabs of Palestine to Arab countries in exchange for Jews then living in Arab countries. This proposal was published in Damascus and distributed among the Arab leadersAnother British public body to propose transfer was the British Labour Party who, in a Resolution at their Annual Conference of 1944, overwhelmingly voted for the encouraging of the Arabs of Palestine to move out.
Part 2 - The "Accord"
Borders of the two states
Palestine will receive 77% of the area of Mandatory Palestine and its borders will be those of the country today known as Jordan..
Israel will receive the remaining 23% of this area and its borders will be those of the area at present under Israeli law and order, together with the whole of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza strip.
Both Palestine and Israel will have constitutions and an unalterable paragraph in the constitution of Palestine will be that it is an Arab state. Likewise an unalterable paragraph in the constitution of Israel will be that it is a Jewish state.
Population of the two states
All Jews will be allowed to live in Israel.
An Arab wishing to remain in Israel will have to sign a declaration that he fully recognises Israel as a Jewish State and that he will always act in accordance with his declaration. This declaration would then be published twice in a newspaper in both Israel and Palestine, with an interval of one month between each publication.
Such an Arab will then be allowed to remain in Israel. However, should at any time in the future, he not honour his declaration, he will immediately be transferred to Palestine, without any compensation whatsoever for his assets.
A similar procedure would apply to a Jew wishing to remain in Palestine.
Those Arabs in Israel not wishing to sign such a declaration, will, within three months of the establishment of the State of Palestine, move to Palestine. They will be able to take all their movable assets and all their removal and transport facilities will be provided at public expense. They will be given every assistance in packing their effects and other arrangements involved with their moving.
Arabs having immovable assets within the borders of Israel will be compensated with the assets of Jews who left the Arab countries leaving their assets behind. Such Jews will have to sign a waiver for such assets and in return will receive immovable assets of the transferred Arabs. It goes without saying that these Jews will be able to sell or otherwise dispose of these assets in any way they desire.
A similar procedure will be implemented for Jews moving from Palestine to Israel.
Part 3 - Answers to Objections to "Accord"
It is naive to expect that there will be no objections to this "accord" from the world and from the Israeli Left. Let us therefore try to anticipate these objections by giving our answers here.
Is not transfer "racial cleansing"?
a) Many people erroneously believe, that population transfers originated with the Nazis who adopted large-scale transfer of national minorities as part of their "New Order" in Europe
In fact, well before the Nazi era, successful and beneficial population transfers took place. The reason for such transfers was summed up in an article on the exchange of populations appearing in the "Encyclopaedia Britannica: "The mixture of populations had led to so much political trouble in modern times that this unmixing process must be regarded as a very considerable advantage.
A classic case of such a transfer took place between Greece and Turkey soon after World War I. This transfer was proposed by the Nobel Peace Prize winner, Fridtjof Nansen and it involved the transfer of about two million persons.
It was so successful that the British Royal Commission, under the Chairmanship of Lord Peel, when considering the Palestine problem in 1936/7, introduced it as a precedent in Palestine.
Over 65 years have passed since the Royal Commission made this recommendation. Today relations between the Arabs and the Jews are no better than they were then. If anything, terrorism and the negative relation of Arabs to the State of Israel are increasing from year to year. In the early years of the State of Israel, there were two Arab parties in the Knesset allied to the dominant Mapai (Labour) party. These two parties had a total of 5 seatsb) Of course, mass transfer of population, or, for that matter, transfer of individuals is not to be undertaken lightly, but it is sometimes the only solution to a problem. It was a former director of the Pan-European Union who wrote of population transfer, "To cut the cancer from a sick body is not cruel, it is necessary."
Let us not pretend that transfer is not painful. People are uprooted from their homes, moved to a different location and then have to reorganise their lives. But what is the alternative? Continual wars, terrorism, numerous people who are killed and maimed for life. As the Jewish writer Israel Zangwill wrote on this question, "One single act of compulsion is better for both sides than perpetual friction."
c) One should mention here that the Government of Israel has forcibly transferred Jews. This was done with the full support of the Left, who made no suggestion that it was "ethnic cleansing"! This occurred in 1982 when Israel transferred the thousands of Jews living in the various settlements in the Sinai peninsula, including the entire city of Yamit. This was absolutely against the will of those settlers and they were even removed in cages! They were given no option to remainJudea. Samaria and the Gaza strip will be compulsorily transferred to within the borders of their intended State of Israel
Why not the pre-1967 borders?
One might well ask why not make the borders of Israel identical to those prior to the Six Day War and those of the Palestine state the areas of Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip?
There are a number of answers to this question:
a) In the partition plan of November 1947, Palestine west of the River Jordan was divided into two states, an Arab state and a Jewish state, and the plan precisely defined the borders of each of these states. As a result of the Arab attack on the emerging Jewish state, the War of Independence followed and Israel acquired part of the area of the intended Arab state, (we shall call the resultant borders the "1949 borders"). As a result of a further attack in 1967, Israel acquired the remainder of the area allocated to the intended Arab state, (and we shall call the resultant borders the "1967 borders").
One could call the United Nations 1947 borders, borders which were recognised by this world body. However, the areas acquired in the War of Independence and in the Six Day War, have the same status - namely, areas acquired during a war. One could therefore understand (although not agree with) those wanting to fix the borders of the Jewish and Arab states according to the 1947 borders. But why should those on the Left choose the 1949 borders, rather than the 1967 borders, for the future borders of Israel?
b) One does not require a degree in War Studies to realise that the 1949 borders of Israel were indefensible. There was the very narrow waist - a mere 15 kmminimum area included about two thirds of the area of Judea and Samaria and the entire Gaza Stripe) A few days before the outbreak of the Six Day War, Jordan, (who then thought she would conquer Israel!) told the Security Council, "The [Armistice] Agreement [of 1949] did not fix boundaries; it fixed the demarcation linef) It was Abba Eban, who was on the left-wing of the Israel Labour Party, who said, "We have openly said that the map will never be the same as on June 4, 1967. For us, this is a matter of security and of principles. The June map is for us equivalent to insecurity and danger. I do not exaggerate when I say that it has for us something of a memory of Auschwitz
There have been enough wars, bloodshed, killing and maiming during the last hundred years in the conflict between the Jews and the Arabs.
The time has more than come to put an end to this. It can be done by implementing this "accord" and in this way both Arabs and Jews will be able to live unmolested by each other in their own states.
NOTES AND REFERENCES:
The Israel-Arab Reader. third revised edition, ed. Walter Laqueur, (New York: Bantam Books, 1976), p.34.
Israel's Heritage, [n.d.]), p.6.
The Israel-Arab Reader, op. cit., pp.113-22.
"Administered Territories", Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, vol. 1, 1971, (Faculty of Law, Tel-Aviv University), p.264.
"Samaria", Israel Law Review, vol. 3, no. 2, April 1968, (Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem), p.294.
"East Jerusalem and the West Bank", New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, vol. 5, no. 3, Winter 1972, p.495.
London: The Goodhart Press, [n.d.]), pp.20-26; Samuel Katz, Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine, (New York: Steimatzky, 1985), pp. 33-37.
Jewish Post (New York), (Internet: http://www.jewishpost.com/jp0908/jpn0908j.htm).
Encyclopaedia Brittanica, vol. 19, (Chicago, 1963), pp.58-62.
Theodor Herzl, Handwritten Diary entry 12 June 1895, (Central Zionist Archives (CZA) H ii B i) ; The Complete Diaries of Theodor Herzl, trans. Harry Zohn, (New York: Herzl Press, 1960), vol.1, p.88.
Journal of Palestine Studies, (Berkeley), vol.XXII no.2 (Winter 1993), pp.44-45, (English translation).
e.g. David Ben-Gurion, Handwritten Diary entries 12 July 1937, 10 December 1938, (Ben Gurion Archives ).
Minutes of Meeting Jewish Agency Executive, Jerusalem, vol.25/3, no.65a, 10 July 1936, p.3, (CZA). 12 June 1938, afternoon session, pp.8-9 aleph, (CZA).
The Middle East Journal, (Washington D.C.), vol.40, no.1, Winter 1986, p.91; Michael Bar-Zohar, Ben-Gurion - A Political Biography, vol. 2, (Tel-Aviv: Am Oved, 1977), p.775.
Bar-Zohar, op. cit., p.776.
"Hamahapach", Al Hamishmar, (Tel-Aviv), 5 April 1985, Pesach supplement, p.29; Yoram Nimrod, Patterns of Israeli-Arab Relations: The Formative Years, 1947 - 1950, Doctoral Thesis, (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1985), p.268.
Minutes of meeting between Ormsby-Gore and Weizmann, 19 July 1937, (Public Record Office London (PRO) Colonial Office (CO) 733/328/4 6029); Minutes in Handwriting of Ormsby-Gore, (PRO CO 733/352 75718/21).
Al Darcei M'dinateinu, (Tel-Aviv: Central Office of Ihud Poalei Zion - Hitahdut, 1938), pp.179-80.
Leo Motzkin, "Unsere Palastinapolitik", Juedische Rundschau, (Berlin), no.28, 12 July 1912, p.261; Sefer Motzkin, ed. Alex Bein, (Jerusalem: Zionist Executive & Executive of World Jewish Congress, 1939), pp.163-64.
"Ben-Eliezer" (pen-name for Nachman Syrkin), Die Judenfrage und der Socialistische Judenstaat, (Bern: Stieger & Cie, 1898), pp.59-61; Writings of Nachman Syrkin, arr. Berl Katznelson and Yehudah Kuperman, (Tel-Aviv: Davar, 1939), pp.53-54.
"Lecture by M. M. Ussishkin before Journalists", Doar Hayom, (Jerusalem), 28 April 1930, pp.1, 4.
20 December 1940, pp.1090-91, (CZA A246/7) ; Yosef Weitz, My Diary and Letters to the Children, (Ramat Gan: Masada, 1965), vol.2, pp.181-82.
Minutes of Meeting Jewish Agency Executive (Jerusalem), vol. 27/1, no.14, 21 November 1937, p.3, (CZA). 15 November 1937, (CZA S25/10060).
The Diaries of Edward R. Stettinius Jr. 1943 - 1946, ed. Thomas M. Campbell and George C. Herring, (New York: New Viewpoints, 1975), p.170.
Hoover Urges Resettling Arabs to Solve Palestine Problem", World - Telegram, (New York), 19 November 1945, p.1.
Notes on Meeting between Weizmann, Shertok, Namier and Philby, 6 October 1939, p.1, (Weizmann Archives). 21 May 1939, (CZA S25/5630).
Palestine Royal Commission Report, Cmd. 5479, London, July 1937, Chapter xxii, (henceforth Peel Report), para.43, 44, pp. 391-92.
Report of the Forty-third Annual Conference of the Labour Party, (London, 1944: Transport House), p.140.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol.19, (Chicago, 1955), p.56
Peel Report, para 40, p.390. This Commission was chaired by Lord Peel, a former Secretary of State for India. The five other members were Sir Horace Rumbold, one of the ablest men in the Diplomatic Service with wide experience as Minister and Ambassador in many countries of the world; Sir Laurie Hammond, a distinguished Indian Civil Servant; Sir William Morris Carter, an ex-Colonial Chief Justice, better known for his searching analysis of the problems of native lands and interests confronted with an immigrant community, both in Rhodesia and Kenya; Sir Harold Morris, the universally acclaimed Chairman of the Industrial Court in Britain; and Professor Reginald Coupland, Professor of Colonial History at Oxford, whose knowledge and study of Colonial administration in the then British Colonial Empire and in other colonial spheres was well known to students throughout the world.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt and President Herbert Hoover.
Edmond de Rothschild; Chairman of the Jewish Agency Administrative Committee, Felix Warburg and the British industrialist and Zionist, Israel Sieff.
Florida, Claude Pepper and the English philosopher and mathematician, Bertrand Russell.
Israel, State of (Political Life)", Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 9, (Jerusalem: Keter, 1971) cols. 667-68.
Schechtman, op,cit., pp.374-75.
The Jewish Chronicle, (London), 27 February 1920, pp.18-19.
Beilin et al., op.cit., pp.20-21.
The Meaning of "Secure Borders", (Tel-Aviv: Israelis Reply, [n.d.]), p.13.
Map of minimum territory needed by Israel for defensive purposes. Secret memorandum sent by Earle G. Wheeler, Chairman of the American Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Secretary of Defense on the subject of Middle East Boundaries, (JCSM 373-67).
The Israel-Arab Reader, op. cit., p.365.
quoted by Blum, op, cit., p.291.
5 November 1969, by David Bedein, "Abba Eban: the June 1967 map represented Israel's "Auschwitz" borders, (Internet: http://israelbehindthenews.com/Archives/Nov-17-02.htm).